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Discussion during APA Conference

In July, the College of Education’s Educational Psychology Department hosted the 5thBiennial American Psychological Association Division 45 Society for the Psychological Study of Culture, Ethnicity, and Race Research Conference. It is the only psychology conference that focuses entirely on culture, ethnicity, and race and the biases present because of these factors.

“In the current climate, it is imperative now more than ever that psychological research is utilized to help communities of color address these current issues related to immigration and the increase of racial tensions,” said Professor Kevin Cokley, who co-coordinated the conference with fellow College of Education Associate Professor Germine Awad.

Interdisciplinary Collaborations Help Address Complex Problems

The pre-conference opened with a panel presentation and discussion, Fostering Effective and Impactful Interdisciplinary Collaborations. College of Education Assistant Professor Sarah Kate Bearman, a clinical child psychologist, presented.

Bearman’s research focuses on effective interventions for underserved children and their families. She explained how her work within a transdisciplinary space—which involves basic science, translational and intervention research, as well as organizational science, interaction with doctors, nurses, care givers, and health communicators—leads to better outcomes.

“The best way to solve complex social and health problems,” said Bearman, “is a participatory team science framework, which is a collaborative effort.”

This interdisciplinary approach helps her create and implement culturally responsive health care interventions for children and families, such as an e-health parenting intervention that can be delivered during routine well-child visits in pediatric primary care clinics. Bearman stressed that team science and community-based participatory research involves continual input from the community. “The research is done with the participants, rather than on them.”

Racial Biases Create Health Disparities

Keynote speaker Lonnie Snowden kicked off the conference. Currently a professor at University of California, Berkeley, he teaches in the Health Policy and Management program in the School of Public Health.

In his address, The Affordable Care Act (ACA), Racial Bias, and Behavioral Healthcare for African Americans, Snowden discussed how policy has impacted ACA expansion, increased access to and quality of behavioral healthcare for minorities, and how biases and stereotypes have negatively impacted Medicaid expansions.

The current combination of biases, both implicit and explicit, and stereotypes surrounding African-Americans and Medicaid recipients has created the concept of the “undeserving poor,” those who supposedly do not deserve healthcare Keynote Speaker Lonnie Snowdencoverage due to their income, race, employment status, or a variety of other factors, said Snowden.

He explained how the concept of the undeserving poor and misconceptions about Medicaid participants has created consequences for public health, healthcare delivery, and employment. This merging of stereotypes has exasperated underlying racial biases in healthcare policies and has led to coverage gaps.

Snowden encouraged psychologists to increase their roles in policy, stating that “what happens in policy creation and implementation can have either a positive or negative impact on people’s lives. The things that we study effect a lot of people, they matter.”

Psychologists of Color and Public Policy

In addition to presentations of findings and networking for practitioners, researchers and students, a plenary panel presented Using Psychology to Impact Public Policy: The Role of Psychologists of Color.

Rice Academy Affiliate Fellow Luz Garcini discussed how her background as a 16-year-old undocumented immigrant impacts her research. She shared with the audience how she frames the issues surrounding undocumented immigrants in terms that can affect public policy, particularly by focusing on the unaddressed health care needs of the population and the subsequent toll those needs take on them and the larger society.

Awad discussed how her research about how Americans of Middle East, North African descent has helped inform policy discussions of categorization of this population within the 2020 Census. All of the panelists stressed that though policy work is difficult and time-consuming, psychologists of color, and those who address issues related to people of color, need to be in the room in order to improve the health and well-being of diverse populations.

This was the first time the conference has been held at the University of Texas at Austin. Previous conferences were held at the University of Michigan, where it was founded by Professor and VP of Diversity Robert Sellers; the University of Oregon; and Stanford. 

Cokley is the Oscar and Anne Mauzy Regents Professor for Educational Research and Development. 

China’s former One Child Policy had profound effects on the parenting of children in the country. As China promoted the policy, extolling the benefits of “high-quality” only children, parents began to devote extraordinary time, attention, and resources to their single child. The children also felt pressure to be the “great” offspring that their parents and country expected them to be.

It was thought that such inordinate attention to and pressure on only children would create generations of “Little Emperors,” children with an exceedingly high self-regard, leading to egocentric character traits considered negative, especially in Chinese society.

Educational Psychology Professor Toni Falbo has spent much of her career studying the effects of China’s One Child Policy on children. Her latest study evaluated research previously published about China’s only children through a new lens that included what has been learned in intervening years.

Head shot of Professor Toni Falbo

Toni Falbo

Falbo’s research compared how only children saw themselves and how they were seen by others, such as the parents and classmates. The results show that singleton boys had a high regard for themselves, a high level that did not match the assessment others had of them. Meanwhile, singleton girls assessed themselves as others saw them.

Says Falbo, “Gender seems to moderate the self-enhancement attributes of the only children we studied. Whereas the boys described themselves more positively than did their parents and peers, the girls described themselves as positively as their parents and peers.” In fact, says Falbo, the girls’ self-assessment was comparable to the self-assessment of girls with siblings.

“While China’s One Child Policy caused parents to favor boys with some negative consequences regarding their egocentricity, it had a positive impact on girls,” says Falbo. She believes that this is because parents devoted resources and attention to girls in a manner that they would not have prior to the policy. “The One Child Policy opened up opportunities for girls, which created a positive effect for female only children.”

To read more, download “Evaluations of the behavioral attributes of only children in Beijing, China: moderating effects of gender and the one-child policy” and listen to a BBC story about only children that features Falbo’s research.

-Feature photo by Lau keith on Unsplash

Hegemonic Psychology: The Politics of Ethnic Minority Research

Conducting research that focuses on the experiences of ethnic minorities is fraught with sociopolitical challenges. In predominantly white academic settings the norms for publication outlets are often antagonistic toward so-called “low impact”, “specialty” journals. This has created an academic culture that often marginalizes and penalizes ethnic minority research. In this talk, psychology is used as an example to demonstrate how hegemonic processes perpetuate the marginalization of ethnic minority research. The question “How do we measure the impact of ethnic minority research?” will be addressed. Traditional and alternative metrics of impact will be discussed.

Kevin Cokley, Ph.D. is the Oscar and Anne Mauzy Regents Professor of Educational Research and Development and Professor of Educational Psychology and African and African Diaspora Studies at the University of Texas at Austin. He is a Fellow of the UT System Academy of Distinguished Teachers and is Director of the Institute for Urban Policy Research & Analysis. Dr. Cokley’s research and teaching can be broadly categorized in the area of African American psychology. His research interests focus on understanding the psychological and environmental factors that impact the academic outcomes and mental health of African American students. His publications have appeared in professional journals such as the Journal of Counseling Psychology; Journal of Black Studies; Journal of Black Psychology, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology; Educational and Psychological Measurement; and the Harvard Educational Review among other outlets. He is the author of the 2014 book “The Myth of Black Anti-Intellectualism” that challenges the notion that African American students are anti-intellectual. He is the past Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Black Psychology and was elected to Fellow status in the American Psychological Association for his contributions to ethnic minority psychology and counseling psychology. He has written several op-eds in major media outlets on topics such as Blacks’ rational mistrust of police, the aftermath of Ferguson, police and race relations, racial disparities in school discipline, and black students’ graduation rates.

Join Educational Psychology Associate Professor Germine Awad as she discusses both the ramifications of classifying people of Middle Eastern or North African (MENA) descent as white on the U.S. Census form and the necessity of giving them their own designation.

Awad’s research focuses on topics related to prejudice and discrimination, identity and acculturation, and body image among women of color. She has focused primarily on Arab/Middle Eastern Americans and African Americans.

Discovery Minute is a video series that highlights and introduces various topics that are researched by faculty at the College of Education at The University of Texas at Austin. Our faculty explore topics that have a direct impact on education, policy, health, and our community.

Students writing tips on a whiteboard

Photo by Christina S. Murrey

 

Many teachers and students in the Houston and surrounding areas are only just beginning to return to school in the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey. For some, schools will remain closed, and students are being redirected to other locations. Many families lost their homes; some lost their livelihoods. Meanwhile, families and educators in Florida are just beginning to assess the impact of Hurricane Irma.

The effects of natural disasters impact the lives and the psyches of students, and caregivers and teachers often struggle with how to respond.

Erin Rodriguez, an educational psychology assistant professor at The University of Texas at Austin’s College of Education studies stress and coping in children. Here, she provides tips to caregivers and teachers to consider for helping children following a natural disaster.

Tips for Caregivers:

  • Emotional and behavioral difficulties following a natural disaster are not uncommon. Children may have symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression, as well as conduct problems (i.e., “acting out” behaviors).

 

  • Children may also experience academic and social difficulties. These problems may be related to emotional difficulties, but can also result from disruptions in schooling and daily activities due to the disaster.

 

  • Children who have greater access to social support, through parents, family members, teachers, friends, and other supportive adults, are more likely to show resilience in the long term.

 

  • Following a disaster, adults should provide ways for children to return to daily routines and activities as much as possible, including school and extracurricular activities. Returning to these activities can reduce the risk of ongoing disruptions and provide multiple avenues for social support.

 

  • Some children are at increased risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties following a disaster. This risk is increased if they experienced more immediate threats (e.g., threats to life) during the disaster, face ongoing stressors (e.g., losing their home/relocation) from the disaster, and if their parents/caregivers also experience emotional difficulties from the disaster.

 

  • While symptoms can get better for some children over time, children with increased risk may experience more severe and lasting difficulties. These children can benefit from evidence-based treatments, including treatments that use cognitive-behavioral strategies. Evidence-based treatments are particularly effective when children can access them within the first few months following the disaster.

 

Head shot of Dr. Erin Rodriguez.

Erin Rodriguez – Assistant Professor

Says Rodriguez, “After a natural disaster, adults sometimes assume kids are resilient, but that may not always be the case. If a parent or teacher notices signs of anxiety, or mood or behavior changes in the weeks or months after a disaster, they should seek out mental health professionals who can assess whether treatment is needed. The good news is that there’s strong research supporting the benefits of early intervention for kids who need it.”

Jane Gray and Kevin Stark

Kevin Stark and Jane Gray

Educational Psychology Professor Kevin Stark and Clinical Assistant Professor Jane Gray are leaders in psychological assessment and treatment of youth in schools. Stark is co-founder of the Texas Child Study Center at Dell Medical Center in Austin, where Gray is director of psychology training. Stark is recognized internationally as an expert in the treatment of youth depression and is a nationally recognized expert in the application of cognitive-behavioral interventions to behavior problems in schools. Gray is also director of behavioral health at the Texas Center for Prevention and Treatment of Childhood Obesity.

Associate Professor Jill Marshall, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, discusses “stereotype threat’s” effect on student outcomes, the importance of helping students develop visual-spatial skills, and how reframing the teaching of math and science using project-based approaches can help engage underrepresented students.

Educational Psychology Professor Kevin Cokley explains how “imposter syndrome” can affect underrepresented students in STEM classes and what educators can do to help ward off its negative effects.

Associate Professor and Director of the Center for STEM Education Victor Sampson discusses how science teachers can modify how they teach to better engage every student in learning scientific methods and retaining content.